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   2020| January-April  | Volume 9 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 24, 2020

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Physical therapy in cervicogenic dizziness
Mazen Mushabab Alqahtani, Faizan Zaffar Kashoo
January-April 2020, 9(1):1-6
Cervicogenic dizziness (CGD) is a condition characterized by the feeling of disorientation in space arising from the cervical spine. A large number of research articles are published in the last 5 years related to physical therapy (PT) management of CGD. According to current literature, there is no specific test that could assess patients with CGD. Plenty of varied interventions for CGD create a dilemma among clinicians regarding the choice of intervention. The amount of scientific literature mandates a review that would highlight the best evidence to be used in PT practice. All the major databases such as CINAHL, COCHRANE CONTROLLED TRIALS REGISTER, EMBASE, GOOGLE SCHOLAR, MEDLINE, PEDRO, SCOPUS, SPORTS DISCUS, and WEB OF SCIENCE were search. Keywords used to search the literature were CGD, cervicogenic headache, vertigo, PT modalities, assessment, and evaluation. Relevant literature was extracted from the database and original articles written in English, which were available from January 2014 to September 2019. The aim of this review is to provide a pragmatic approach to the physical therapists involved in the management of CGD.
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Evaluation of nurse interns' satisfaction and hospital as an educational environment in nursing internship training program, Saudi Arabia
Badria Mahrous Abdelhameed Mohammed, Waled Amen Mohammed Ahmed
January-April 2020, 9(1):22-29
Background/Objective: New nurse interns are known to eagerly anticipate their internship training year but often find themselves confronted with several obstacles during this period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nurse interns' satisfaction and hospital as an educational environment. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on 195 nursing students (or interns during the internship year) at the Albaha University, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences in 2017–2018. The hospitals that were encompassed in this study were King Fahad Hospital and Prince Meshari Hospital. The tools of study were divided into the following sections: sociodemographic and personal datasheet; Postgraduate Hospital as an Educational Environment Measure; and satisfaction scale. Results: According to the study results, the interns were highly satisfied. This finding illustrates a highly significant correlation between the overall satisfaction scale with role autonomy, perception of teaching, perception of social support, and the overall score of Postgraduate Hospital as an Educational Environment Measure. Furthermore, their satisfaction levels were found to be highly significantly correlated with average (P = 0.002) wherein about 43.08% and 21.54% denoted moderate and high levels of satisfaction, respectively. Pediatric intensive care units and neonatal intensive care units were reported to be the areas with the greatest satisfaction levels. Conclusion: The nurse interns were found to be highly satisfied, and the relationship of the hospital as an educational environment was reported as the most influential factor on their satisfaction during the internship training program.
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Effectiveness of team-based learning with high fidelity simulation in an undergraduate pediatric course for nurses
Hend Al Najjar
January-April 2020, 9(1):12-16
Background: Team-based learning (TBL) is a flipped class teaching technique based on principles of collaborative learning. It improves academic test performance in students. Increased satisfaction with learning tasks and enhancement in critical thinking skills is also observed with TBL in nursing education. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of “conventional TBL” (CTBL) and “TBL combined with high fidelity simulation” on student's attitude and test performance. Methods: The study was conducted in College of Nursing, Jeddah, following Institutional Review Board approval. The study had a two-group posttest only experimental design. Undergraduate nursing students enrolled in the pediatric nursing course were randomly allocated to two groups. Students in Group 1 and Group 2 were taught selected course topics with “CTBL” and “TBL combined with high fidelity simulation” respectively. They filled a questionnaire (comprising of 5-point Likert scale) measuring their attitude toward TBL after completion of the course. They also undertook a test comprising of the same items and the test scores between the two groups were compared. Results: A significant difference (P < 0.001) in test scores the two groups of students was assessed. The difference in mean score of responses between Group 1 and Group 2 was also significant. Conclusion: Test scores of students who covered learning content with TBL combined with high fidelity simulation had better test scores in cognitive test items. A more positive attitude toward TBL was noted in students completing learning tasks with high fidelity simulation in the application phase.
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Level of awareness among non-medical students toward keratoconus, Abha,Saudi Arabia
Abdulrahman Mohammed Al-Amri, Abdulhamid Saad Al-Ghamdi, Fatimah Ibrahim Al-Khabbaz, Amal Aziz Al-Qallaf, Jihan Jamal Siddiqui, Fatima Abdullah Al-Sadiq, Maan Abdullah Al-Barry
January-April 2020, 9(1):7-11
Background: Keratoconus (KC) is a progressive, bilateral, asymmetric, ectatic disease that leads to progressive corneal thinning and protrusion, which results in progressive visual impairment and irregular astigmatism. Early detection plays a critical role in the management and prognosis. Awareness of the population at risk improves early screening and utilization of eye health care. The aim of the present study is to assess the awareness level among non-medical students toward KC, Abha city, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the nonmedical students from January 2019 to May 2019 in the Southern Region of Saudi Arabia. A total of 393 nonmedical students were randomly selected through the university admission deanship records. Electronic consents were obtained from all participants. Close-ended questionnaires were circulated using the university official electronic mails. Results: A total of 374 females and 19 males were responded. Among those who had poor awareness, majority were female (95.7%) and belonged to the age group of 17–21 years (68.3%). Similar pattern was seen in the study participants with fair awareness. However, 57.1% of the study participants with good awareness belonged to the age group of 22–26 years. Conclusion: Visual impairment is a common condition among young population. Onset and severity of KC are diverse among countries. Early screening for the population at risk could hasten the appropriate medical intervention and reduce the burden of this condition. The level of awareness considered a key factor for a better utilization of the eye health care.
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Knowledge and perceptions on hand hygiene among nurses in the Asir region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Mohammed Al-Mohaithef, Sriram Chandramohan, Ahmed Hazazi, Ebtesam Abbas Hassan Elsayed
January-April 2020, 9(1):30-38
Introduction: Hand hygiene plays a significant role in controlling the spread of health-care infections. As nurses are in direct contact with patients for a significant proportion of the time, they can be a vehicle for cross-contamination within the hospital and as such, good hand hygiene protocols can ensure the safety of patients in a variety of settings. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and perception of hand hygiene among nurses in Saudi Arabian hospitals. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2017 and May 2018 to determine the nurses' knowledge of hand hygiene. Nurses from six hospitals in the Asir region of Saudi Arabia were recruited using multi-stage cluster sampling. The World Health Organization Knowledge and Perception Questionnaire for Health-care Workers were administered to collect the information. Results: During the recruitment phase, 300 nurses were contacted and 243 agreed to participate in the study, indicating a response rate of 81%. About 51.85% of the nurses demonstrated a good level of knowledge about hand hygiene and 50.2% of nurses had a negative perception of hand hygiene. The results have shown a positive association between knowledge, nurses' perceptions, and years of experience, and their participation on a training course about hand washing. Conclusion: Educational interventions should be undertaken to enhance the knowledge of nurses/health-care providers and to promote positive perceptions of hand hygiene among nurses.
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Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viral infections and impact of control program among blood donors in Al-Baha region, Saudi Arabia
Talal A Sallam, Haitham Mohamed El-Bingawi, Khalid Ibrahim Alzahrani, Bader Hassan Alzahrani, Atyah Ali Alzahrani
January-April 2020, 9(1):56-60
Background: A low prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections has been previously reported in Al-Baha. The present study reexamines the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection among blood donors 3 years following a previous study in an attempt to detect an impact of control measures. Materials and Methods: This 29-month retrospective study was conducted from October 2014 to May 2017. A total of 3,461 blood donors were screened for serological and molecular markers for HBV and HCV. Results: The mean age of the donors was 32.4 ± 10. 1 (range: 17–67). Of all donors 10 (0.3%) had HBsAg while 253 (7.3%) had anti-HBc in absence of HBsAg. Anti-HCV was detected in 8 (0.2%) donors, of whom 6 (75.0%) were also HCV-RNA positive. HBV-DNA was detected in 12 (0.4%) donors, of whom 10 (83.3%) had concurrent HBsAg, whereas 2 (16.7%) had HBV-DNA with anti-HBc as the only HBV marker. The donors born after inclusion of HBV vaccine in expanded program of immunization (EPI) had a significantly (P < 0.05) lower prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HBc, and HBV-DNA. Although insignificant (P = 0.197), a lower prevalence of HCV infection was detected among the donors who were born after implementing the screening policy for HCV infection. Conclusion: Compared to a previous report, this study detected a further reduction in the prevalence of HBV, whereas the decline of the prevalence of HCV infection merits further investigation.
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Prediction of 30-day mortality for acute chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation in the emergency room
Sema Avci, Gokhan Perincek
January-April 2020, 9(1):17-21
Background: Nowadays, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common diseases that cause morbidity and mortality. The prediction of survival for acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) is substantial for the management of those patients in the emergency room (ER). Aim: The main objectives of this study were to determine which clinical or laboratory parameters, including vital signs, number of hospitalizations, lactate clearance, C-reactive protein/albumin ratio (CAR), procalcitonin, platelet/lymphocyte ratio, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio were the most useful predictors of the 30 day mortality for AECOPD in the ER. Materials and Methods: The study took place at Kars Harakani State Hospital. The files of patients were evaluated retrospectively. Results: The study included 243 patients and 15.6% of those died within 30 days. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was lower in those with who survived (P = 0.008). The hospitalization in intensive care unit (HICU) during the past 12 months (P < 0.001), CAR (P = 0.044), and procalcitonin (P = 0.002) was higher and forced-vital capacity (FVC) (P = 0.035) was lower in nonsurvivors. The age, HICU, and procalcitonin level correlated positively (r = 0.188, P = 0.003; r = 0.400,P < 0.001; r = 0.223, P = 0.001) and SBP, FVC correlated negatively with 30-day mortality, respectively (r = −0.197, P = 0.002; r = 0.400, P = 0.034). Conclusions: Age, SBP, CAR, procalcitonin, HICU, and FVC are predictors for 30-day mortality in patients who admit to ER with AECOPD.
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Clinical, histopathological, and radiological features of unilateral nasal mass in Saudi Arabia: A retrospective study
Khalid Hakami, Mohammed Basurrah, Ali M Alshehri, Khalid A Althagafi, Abdulaziz O Alotaibi, Mohammed F Alharthi
January-April 2020, 9(1):45-49
Context: Nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the nasal cavity are common conditions in routine clinical practice among almost all age group of people. Aims: This study examines the clinicopathological and radiological profiles of the unilateral nasal mass in an Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) clinic of AlHada Armed Forces Hospital. Settings and Design: The study design involves an ENT clinic of AlHada Armed Forces Hospital, Taif, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective examination of patients' records was done to investigate the clinicopathological and radiological profiles of unilateral nasal masses between 2016 and 2018. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics included mean, standard deviation, frequencies, and percentages, and inferential statistics such as independent t-test and Chi-square were carried out using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (Version 20.0 IBM SPSS Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Results: Nasal polyps were the most common diagnosis seen in seven (35%) cases, and the most common symptom was nasal obstruction (N: 12; 60%). Histopathological examination revealed that inflammatory lesions were more common (N: 13; 65%) than that of nonneoplastic masses (N: 7; 35%). In two patients with nasal polyps (n = 7), the radiological diagnosis was not correlated with the histopathological findings. Conclusions: Most of our cases of unilateral nasal mass were inflammatory nasal polyps followed by allergic fungal sinusitis. Clinicians should use caution in relying on radiological findings, and all lesions should undergo a pathological examination.
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Physiological and psychosocial stressors among Palestinian hemodialysis patients:A cross-sectional study
Jamal A. S Qaddumi, Mariam Al-Tell, Omar Almahmoud, Dina T. N Issa, Majed Sulaiman Alamri, Jestoni Dulva Maniago, Omar Mohamed Khraisat, Abdullah Sameh Khawaldeh, Reem Nassar AL-Dossary
January-April 2020, 9(1):50-55
Objectives: The study aimed at assessing the stressors among hemodialysis (HD) patients and finding out whether there is any relation between these stressors and patients' characteristics in the North of the West Bank. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional, descriptive–analytical study was carried out. Data collection took place at three governmental hospitals and one private hospital where 120 HD patients responded to the HD stress scale. Results: Hemodialysis patients were mildly to moderately stressed, the greatest perceived sources of stress appeared to be “physiological stressors” (mean = 2.655), but the item with the highest percentage was 'limitation on time and place for vacation' (84.2%) which belong to psychosocial stress subscale, and the item stress with the least percentage was “dependency on nurses and technicians”(45%). Conclusions: There was significant difference between the psychosocial stressors and duration of treatment. The study concluded that HD patients are in need for continuous support, and it is recommended different contributions to improve the quality of their life.
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Children's perception of dentist and clinical environment – An observational study
Rawan Shaker M Asiri, Tasneem Sakinatul Ain, Asma Mohammed Al Hunaif, Elaf Saleh A Alshehri, Shaima Saeed Aldashnan, Lujain Abdulrhman Al Sahman, Rafi Ahmad Togoo
January-April 2020, 9(1):61-69
Objective: The objective of the study is to understand the attitude and perceptions of children toward dentists, dental treatment, and clinical environment. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted where pictorial questionnaires were distributed among 498 children, within the age range of 3–14 years, who visited dental clinics in Aseer region of Saudi Arabia. Fisher's exact and Chi-square tests were applied to the collected data. Results: A majority (59.6%) of the children did like their visit to the dentists. About 63.1% of children preferred to be treated by a female dentist, and 53% of them liked their dentists wearing a colored coat. Female children were found to have significantly more positive responses toward protective gear of dentist and dental experience as compared to the males. Further, 9–11 years of children had more positive responses than the other children of different age groups. Conclusions: It was observed that most of the children liked visiting the clinics, and their siblings also shared their positive experience during dental treatment. However, children are found to fear the dental treatment procedure, especially the use of syringes. Fear toward dentists and clinical environment can be curbed using engaging dental practices. Children are found to be strongly affected by the gender and appearance of the dentists.
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Stafne bone cyst: Report of a case and review of the literature
John Spencer Daniels, Ibrahim Albakry, Mohammed Ismail Samara, Ramat Oyebunmi Braimah
January-April 2020, 9(1):71-73
Stafne bone cyst is a rare and asymptomatic bone depression usually discovered incidentally on routine radiographs of the jaws. This pseudocyst could mimic odontogenic pathologies, especially sequelae of dental caries. We present a 25-year-old male with painful right mandibular swelling due to carious teeth on the right side of the mandible which the patient claimed was noticed 3 months prior to presentation. Panoramic radiograph showed grossly carious lower right first molar with periapical granuloma. In close relation with this, periapical pathology was a rounded well-defined radiolucency below the inferior alveolar canal. The patient had an extraction of the right lower first molar and was prescribed antibiotics. The apical pathology resolved completely after the extraction. A diagnosis of Stafne bone cyst was made as incidental finding following further investigation of the radiolucency below the inferior alveolar canal with computed tomographic scan.
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Knowledge on human papillomavirus and cervical cancer awareness among women in South India
Firdous Ansari
January-April 2020, 9(1):74-74
  632 113 -
Primary empty sella syndrome: An overview
Jamir Pitton Rissardo, Ana Letícia Fornari Caprara
January-April 2020, 9(1):75-76
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The impact of activity-role participation on cognitive status in geriatric individuals
Ayşe Göktaş, Hüseyin Kudret, Irem Kar, Murat Varlı
January-April 2020, 9(1):39-44
Objective: This study was planned to investigate the relationship between cognitive status, functional level, life satisfaction, and quality of life in elderly people. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in Ankara Universty School of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics. Seventy-nine elderly individuals whose ages over 65 years were included in the study. The questionnaire covered sociodemographic characteristics, administration of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), The Model of Human Occupation Screening Tool (MOHOST), Short Form-36 (SF-36) quality of life, and Satisfaction with Life Scale. Results: The mean age of the patients was 76.72 ± 7.26 years. Of the patients examined, 34 (43.0%) had mild, 11 (14%) had severe dementia,17 (21.5%) had moderate dementia and 17 patients (21.5%) had standard cognitive status. The weakest areas were found to be success expectancy, interest, choices, problem-solving, organization, and energy in MOHOST. The life satisfaction of individuals was found to be “satisfied” on average. Furthermore, there were a positive correlation between MOHOST (P < 0.001) and SF-36 scale (P < 0.001) and a negative correlation between MMSE and The Model of Human Occupation Screening Tool (MOHOST) (P < 0.001) scores. The cognitive status in elderly people is associated some variables, especially functional profile. Conclusions: High rate of dementia was found in elderly individuals. The weakest areas were found to be motivation for activity-role of the individuals. It was concluded that low functional level was a risk factor for the elderly. Considering the higher ratio of dementia in the elderly, activity-role participation should be motivation to the affected elderly to improve their quality of life, cognitive status, and life satisfaction level.
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