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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 109-113

Cytopathological diagnosis of filariasis by fine-needle aspiration cytology in different body locations: A retrospective study of 5 years in central India

Department of Pathology, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Wardha, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Vitaladevuni Balasubramanyam Shivkumar
Department of Pathology, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram - 442 102, Wardha, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/sjhs.sjhs_63_20

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Background: Filariasis is one of the common health problems in tropical countries. The parasite causing the disease primarily resides in lymphatic channels or lymph nodes. It can remain viable in these places for decades. The clinical presentation may vary from superficial palpable swelling to pain and erythema. The cytopathological diagnosis of microfilaria on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) helps in prompt recognition of the disease. Aim: The aim of the study was to analyze the presence of microfilariae (MF) diagnosed on FNAC from different body locations based on clinicopathological data and cytopatholgical features. Methods: It was a retrospective observational study in which cases of MF over last 5 years which were diagnosed on FNAC were analyzed. Results: Of 34069 cases of FNAC and 45623 cases of fluid cytology, 27 cases (0.033%) of filariasis were diagnosed on cytopathology smears. The various sites included the skin and soft tissue (8 cases), lymph node (6 cases), breast (5 cases), pleural fluid (4 cases), scrotal swelling (3 cases), and thyroid gland (1 case). Eosinophilia was found in 18 cases (66.67%). The background showed inflammatory infiltrate in 17 cases (62.96%), while florid reactive mesothelial hyperplasia was seen in 2 cases (7.4%). We found 4 cases (14.81%) of incidental malignancies along with MF (3 breast and 1 pleural fluid). Conclusion: Although rare, filariasis should always be suspected as a differential diagnosis of FNAC in different body location swellings. A careful attitude while screening cytopathological smears helps to diagnose MF even in asymptomatic cases.

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