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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 171-178

The protective effect of Punica granatum (pomegranate) against glaucoma development

1 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science (Girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
2 Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Anhar M Gomaa
Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, P.O. Box: 12111
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2278-0521.171429

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Background: Primary open-angle glaucoma is the most common type of glaucoma. Objectives: This study aims to explore the anti-glaucoma activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum), against hydroxylpropylmethylcellulose (HPMC). Materials and Methods: Twenty-four rabbits were used and divided into four groups such as Group 1: Control, Group 2: Glaucoma rabbits, Group 3: Normal rabbits fed on commercial diet containing 20% pomegranate, and Group 4: Glaucoma rabbits fed on commercial diet containing 20% pomegranate. Intraocular pressure (IOP) levels were determined. The activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH) were assessed. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) and lipid profiles (total cholesterol [TC], triacylglycerol [TAG], low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [VLDL-C]), and liver functions were also measured. Results: A significant decrease in IOP was observed in glaucoma rabbits treated with diet containing 20% pomegranate. A significant increase in the levels of reduced GSH (P < 0.011), CAT (P < 0.034), and SOD (P < 0.001) activities was observed in the rabbits fed on diet containing 20% dried pomegranate comparing to glaucoma group. The levels of MDA and NO were decreased after pomegranate administered. In glaucoma group, the levels of lipid profiles TC, TAG, LDL-C, HDL-C, and VLDL-C were 166.5 ± 0.96, 175.00 ± 3.61, 82.2 ± 3.85, 41.5 ± 2.1, and 35.00 ± 0.72 (mg/dl), respectively. After rabbits fed on 20% dried pomegranate, the levels of lipid profiles were improved. Conclusion: The results suggest that pomegranate is very efficient to reduce IOP in HPMC experimental rabbits induced glaucoma. This protective effect appears to occur by maintaining the antioxidant defense system, possibly by preventing depletion of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. We suggest that pomegranate act as a protective and may be useful in improving the complications of glaucoma and stop the progression glaucoma development.

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